OCTAVES

The next highest or lowest pitch of the same note is called an octave. An octave is the distance between a note and a note with twice the frequency. On a piano, for example, an octave above C1 is C2. C0 is one octave lower.

In the octave, there are 12 semitones. Throughout the human hearing range, these tones repeat in the same order.

IMPORTANT SIGNATURES

Key signatures indicate whether a scale’s notes are sharp () or flat (). Each of the twelve available notes is used to create one of the twelve key signatures.

Key signatures can also be used to determine the tonal core of a song. A song in the key of A minor, for example, uses notes from the A minor scale.

MODES AND SCALE OF MUSIC

Musical scales are the fundamental elements of music. When learning basic music theory, it’s critical to understand musical scales and how they work.

The two most frequent scales, their scale degrees, and the seven music modes are discussed in this section.

SCALES OF MUSIC

A music scale is a group of notes grouped by pitch within an octave. Each scale is defined by the ascending or descending interval connections between note pitches. Furthermore, the notes of a scale are used to create melodies and harmonies.

Scales come in a variety of shapes and sizes. The major and minor scales, on the other hand, are the two most common varieties. Any note can be used to create major and minor scales. The pattern of intervals you use determines how you use them.

SCALES OF IMPORTANCE

There are a total of twelve natural major scales to choose from. Natural major scales have a bright, upbeat, and joyful sound.

The seven notes in all major scales have the same interval pattern: W-W-H-W-W-W-H-W-W-W-H-W-W-W-H-W-W-W-H-W-W-W-H-W (whole-whole-half-whole-whole-whole-half).

SMALL SCALES

Natural minor scales have a gloomy, melancholy, and emotional tone to them. The seven notes in all minor scales have the same interval pattern: W-H-W-W-W-W-W-W-W-W-W-W-W-W-W-W-W-W-W-W-W-W-W-W (whole-half-whole-whole-half-whole-whole).

There are a total of twelve natural minor scales to choose from. In addition, the minor scale has three variations: natural, harmonic, and melodic.

CHORDS AND EXTENSIONS OF CHORDS

Music’s harmonising building blocks are chords. They elicit feelings and serve as a foundation for crafting tunes.

When learning music theory, understanding how to form chords and how they interact is crucial. Basic chord types, chord extensions, and inversions are covered in this section.

THIRTY-SEVENTH CHORDS

A seventh chord is formed by adding a note to the base triad. A root note, a third, a perfect fifth, and a seventh make up a seventh chord.

A C major seventh, for example, has the notes C–E–G–B. Seventh chords are divided into five categories: major, minor, dominant, diminished, and half-diminished.

CHORDS OF IMPORTANCE

A root note, a major third, and a perfect fifth characterise major chords. A major triad is a chord that contains only these three notes.

A C major triad, for example, has the notes C-E-G. To make more complicated chords, you can add notes.